Differential diagnosis of acute elevations in ICPDiagnostic modality

Edema following traumatic brain injury

Brain imaging

Subdural/epidural/subarachnoidal/intraparenchymal hemorrhage

Brain imaging

Venous sinus thrombosis

Venography using brain imaging

Secondary ischemia

Brain imaging, PbtO2

Central nervous system infections

CSF analysis, brain imaging

Plateau waves

ICP Waveform analysis

Hydrocephalus

Brain imaging

Seizures

EEG

Brain imaging = CT or MRI. CSF = Cerebral spinal fluid.PbtO2 = brain tissue oxygen tension

Table 1. Differential diagnosis of acute elevations in ICP in patients with traumatic brain injury.